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What are the differences in fuel level sensor function between model years for some 2006 and 2007 General Motors passenger cars?

The 2006 version of some models has a float level sensor in which the fuel level increases when resistance increases. In 2007, General Motors changed the architecture of the cluster on some vehicles, making the gauge now work ‘backwards.’ Thus, if a fuel level sensor for a 2006 application is installed on a 2007 application, the gauge will read opposite – when the tank is full the gauge shows empty, and when the tank is empty the gauge shows full. The key to prevent this is to check your application. Make sure you are using the correct part for the correct year application.


What causes premature D-ring failure on Ford diesel injectors, and what are recommendations to resolve the issue?

Premature D-ring failure of Ford diesel injectors is usually caused by either a leaking ball tube O-ring or leakage between the ball tube and injector D-ring. In the case of a leaking ball tube O-ring, ball tube O-rings flatten and harden with age, allowing pressurized oil to escape past the ball tube O-ring – blasting the top of the injector D-ring. Installation damage to the injector D-ring from the ball tubes being misaligned can cause leakage between the ball tube and the injector D-ring. 
To resolve the issue, replace ball tubes and O-rings when installing injectors, ensure the ball tubes are properly aligned during injector installation, and use clean engine oil to lubricate the ball tubes prior to installation.



How do I determine if a fuel trim problem exists in more than one engine operating range? What is the process for fuel trim diagnosis?

Check the fuel trim at idle, at 1500 rpm and at 2500 rpm. After these no load checks, test drive the vehicle at various steady load conditions and look for any fuel trim variation. If the long term fuel trim (LTFT) for Bank 1 is 25 percent at idle, but then corrects to 4 percent at 1500 and 2500 rpm, consider factors that cause a lean condition at idle ¬– such as a vacuum leak. If the condition exists in all rpm ranges, then the cause is more likely a fuel supply issue caused by low fuel pressure, restricted injectors or a defective sensor input from a MAF or engine temperature sensor. 

I bought a FG0946 fuel pump. The package with the O ring contains black and white clips. What are they for?


The black and white clips in the package are for the fuel line connections, if needed. Hairpin clips secure nylon fuel lines to various fuel system components, such as the fuel pump, fuel filter and fuel injector rail.  It is an accepted practice that clips are a “single-use” item – once they are removed they are not reinstalled, and a new one is used the next time.  Reinstallation of a used clip may not allow the fuel line to be properly secured to the fuel system component which may lead to a gasoline leak.